Urine contains many dissolved minerals and salts. When your urine has high levels of these minerals and salts, you can form stones. Kidney stones can start small but can grow larger in size, even filling the inner hollow structures of the kidney. Some stones stay in the kidney, and do not cause any problems. Sometimes, the kidney stone can travel down the ureter, the tube between the kidney and the bladder. If the stone reaches the bladder, it can be passed out of the body in urine. If the stone becomes lodged in the ureter, it blocks the urine flow from that kidney and causes pain.

The Kidneys and Urinary System

The kidneys are fist-size organs that handle the body’s fluid and chemical levels. Most people have two kidneys, one on each side of the spine behind the liver, stomach, pancreas and intestines. Healthy kidneys clean waste from the blood and remove it in the urine. They control the levels of sodium, potassium and calcium in the blood.

The kidneys, ureters and bladder are part of your urinary tract. The urinary tract makes, transports, and stores urine in the body. The kidneys make urine from water and your body’s waste. The urine then travels down the ureters into the bladder, where it is stored. Urine leaves your body through the urethra.

Kidney stones form in the kidney. Some stones move from the kidney into the ureter. The ureters are tubes leading from the kidneys to the bladder. If a stone leaves the kidney and gets stuck in the ureter, it is called a ureteral stone.

What are Kidney Stones Made of?

Kidney stones come in many different types and colors. How you treat them and stop new stones from forming depends on what type of stone you have.
Calcium stones (80 percent of stones)
Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stone. There are two types of calcium stones: calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. Calcium oxalate is by far the most common type of calcium stone. Some people have too much calcium in their urine, raising their risk of calcium stones. Even with normal amounts of calcium in the urine, calcium stones may form for other reasons.
Uric acid stones (5-10 percent of stones)
Uric acid is a waste product that comes from chemical changes in the body. Uric acid crystals do not dissolve well in acidic urine and instead will form a uric acid stone. Having acidic urine may come from:
  • Being overweight
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Type 2 diabetes (high blood sugar)
  • Gout
  • A diet that is high in animal protein and low in fruits and vegetables
Struvite/infection stones (10 percent of stones)
Struvite stones are not a common type of stone. These stones are related to chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs). Some bacteria make the urine less acidic and more basic or alkaline. Magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) stones form in alkaline urine. These stones are often large, with branches, and they often grow very fast. People who get chronic UTIs, such as those with long-term tubes in their kidneys or bladders, or people with poor bladder emptying due to neurologic disorders (paralysis, multiple sclerosis, and spina bifida) are at the highest risk for developing these stones.
Cystine stones (less than 1 percent of stones)
Cystine is an amino acid that is in certain foods; it is one of the building blocks of protein. Cystinuria (too much cystine in the urine) is a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. It is when the kidneys do not reabsorb cystine from the urine. When high amounts of cystine are in the urine, it causes stones to form. Cystine stones often start to form in childhood.


Common symptoms of kidney stones include a sharp, cramping pain in the back and side. This feeling often moves to the lower abdomen or groin. The pain often starts suddenly and comes in waves. It can come and go as the body tries to get rid of the stone.

other signs of a kidney stone include:

  • A feeling of intense need to urinate.
  • Urinating more often or a burning feeling during urination.
  • Urine that is dark or red due to blood. Sometimes urine has only small amounts of red blood cells that can’t be seen with the naked eye.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • For men, you may feel pain at the tip of the penis


Low Urine Volume
A major risk factor for kidney stones is constant low urine volume. Low urine volume may come from dehydration (loss of body fluids) from hard exercise, working or living in a hot place, or not drinking enough fluids. When urine volume is low, urine is concentrated and dark in color. Concentrated urine means there is less fluid to keep salts dissolved. Increasing fluid intake will dilute the salts in your urine. By doing this, you may reduce your risk of stones forming. Adults who form stones should drink enough fluid to make at least 2.5 liters (⅔ gallon) of urine every day. On average, this will take about 3 liters (100 ounces) of fluid intake per day. While water is likely the best fluid to drink, what matters most is getting enough fluid.

Best Treatment Options:

  • ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy): It uses shock waves to break Kidney stones into small pieces that can move through the urinary tract & pass from the body.
  • URS (Ureteroscopy): In this, the ureteroscope is passed through the urethra and into the ureter to remove a stone using the laser.
  • RIRS (Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery): It is a procedure for doing surgery within the kidney using a flexible ureteroscope to remove upper ureter and small kidney stones.
  • PCNL (Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy): It is a minimally invasive procedure in which large kidney stones are removed through a small incision in skin.

Why Immediate Treatment is Required?

  • Avoid Permanent Damage to kidneys
  • Get Immediate Relief and restore Kidney Function
  • Avoid Chances of UTI Infections

Why Opt for Laser Treatment?

    • Causes No Damage to Kidneys
    • No effect on Sexual Life
    • Stone Removal in 45 min

Hassle-free Insurance Approval

    • All Insurances covered
    • No upfront payment
    • Paperwork by max health team on your behalf

What is the Cost of Surgery?

Cost of Treatment depends on the following factors:
  • Size, Location & Number of Stones
  • Technique & Equipment used
  • Requirement of additional sittings (if any)

For best estimation – consultation by surgeon is required.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Yes, our team will be able to help you in 100% insurance approvals and clearances.

We have a team of expert urologists with 13+ yrs of experience. Your personal medical coordinator will assist you at each step.

You can walk from the next day and can return to normal lifestyle in 7 days.

In many cases, stones can cause swelling, infection of kidney, leading to severe Kidney damage. Our urologists will be able to help you with multiple surgical & non-surgical treatment options

The treatment has no effect on your sexual health. You can continue your normal activities post treatment.


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